domingo, 17 de febrero de 2013

Más transparencia es rentable económicamente. Artículo en L'Econòmic.

(Here there is an English translation of this post)

Ayer en L'Econòmic me publicaron un artículo acerca de la más que necesaria transparencia en nuestros partidos políticos.

L'Econòmic es un semanario catalán de matiz económico, por este motivo quise relacionar la transparencia, o la ausencia de transparencia, como un problema no sólo político sino también económico.

Existe una correlación bastante clara entre los países con mejor renta por cápita y los que tienen más transparencia (en todos los ámbitos de la sociedad).

Os traduzco al español el artículo original:


Más transparencia es rendible económicamente.

Últimamente la palabra "transparencia" es trending topic en España, todo el mundo habla de ello, las tertulias van llenas y quien más quien menos aporta ideas y, de hecho, da la sensación de que ahora en 30 días tenemos que hacer lo que no hemos hecho en los últimos 30 años.

Lo cierto es que hay un colectivo importante de personas e instituciones que hace mucho tiempo que reclamamos, exigimos, transparencia en nuestro país. El Estado español es el único gran país de la Unión Europea que aún no ha legislado el acceso a la información pública como un derecho fundamental de cualquier ciudadano; éste es uno de los principales déficits democráticos que tenemos, (¿sabéis que en Suecia hace casi 250 años que se tiene este derecho?, 250 años! [1]).

Un ciudadano sueco seguro que no entendería, por ejemplo, que una ONG en pro de la transparencia (Access-Info) recientemente haya sido condenada a pagar 3.000 euros (los costes del juicio) por haber pedido al gobierno español qué medidas estaba aplicando para luchar contra la corrupción [2]. Dada la situación actual, este ejemplo deja muy claras las carencias e incongruencias de nuestra democracia.

Pero no es sólo una cuestión de derechos democráticos, como no podía ser de otra manera, también una cuestión económica.

En el último informe del Índice de Percepción de la Corrupción de Transparency International [3], correspondiente al año 2012, el Estado español está situada en el lugar número 30, justo al mismo nivel que Bután y bastante lejos de los países líderes: Dinamarca, Finlandia, Nueva Zelanda y Suecia.

Si exceptuamos los países que son paraísos fiscales, veremos que hay una clara correlación entre los países con menos corrupción y los que tienen una renta per cápita más alta (este último indicador, según datos del Banco Mundial [4]).

Por lo tanto, aumentar la transparencia es rentable económicamente.

Como comentaba antes, últimamente se habla mucho sobre transparencia: muchas quejas, muchos análisis, algunas medidas concretas, pero pocas acciones que sean rápidas de implementar y menos las que son con carácter voluntario.

La mayoría de propuestas de acciones van encaminadas a modificar las leyes para que obliguen que determinadas instituciones sean más transparentes. Ciertamente, es un paso necesario pero no suficiente, hay que exigir también proactividad.

La verdadera transparencia es la que se hace voluntariamente, debe ser un acto deseado y no obligado, por mucho que se legisle siempre habrá una rendija para aquel que no quiera ser transparente.

En este sentido, y centrándonos en los partidos políticos, ya ha llegado el momento de que estas organizaciones realicen los pasos necesarios para ser proactivamente transparentes. Cabe recordar que aproximadamente el 90% de la financiación de los partidos es de origen público, por tanto, es más que razonable que la sociedad quiera conocer qué se hace con ese dinero.

Es loable que el PP recientemente haya publicado sus grandes cifras económicas que todavía no están auditadas por el Tribunal de Cuentas (ejercicios desde 2008 hasta 2011) [5].

Sin querer desmerecer la iniciativa, no basta con ello, estos datos dicen muy poco, ya que están relacionadas con sólo las grandes partidas presupuestarias sin entrar en detalles. La verdadera acción de luchar contra la corrupción en los partidos políticos proviene de la apertura de todos los datos en Open Data, es decir, publicar los datos para que fácilmente sean tratados por programas informáticos.

De esta manera se hace publicidad de todos los datos (incluidas las partidas más pequeñas) y, muy importante, se facilita el cruce automático de esta información con la de otras instituciones.

Sin que ello vaya en detrimento de la legislación de una buena ley de transparencia, hay que pedir a los partidos políticos que voluntariamente abran sus datos [6].

Como comentaba antes, aumentar la transparencia es rentable económicamente, no creo que estemos en situación de permitirnos el lujo de no tenerlo en cuenta.

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